When you think about the power of the human mind to solve problems, it is difficult to overestimate what impact the discovery of antibiotics have had for the human race. They almost single-handedly rendered many deadly infectious instantly benign (of course until antibiotic misuse exacerbated resistance). While many people know the story of the moldy petri dish, there is a lot more to tell. William Rosen, in Miracle Cure: The Creation of Antibiotics and Modern Medicine, tells that story expertly.
This book, published earlier in the year, spans the entirety of modern medicine using antibiotics as the lens from which to view the field. This might seem odd as antibiotics represent only one component of medicine but Rosen shows just how their discovery changed the game.
The discovery of antibiotics was scientifically dependent on many antecedent discoveries regarding the causes of disease, microscopy, the theory of the cell, and the search for magic bullets to name but a few.
Once antibiotics were discovered, the fact that a "miracle cure" with true efficacy (unlike patent medicines, folk remedies, and homeopathy) a whole structure of medicine that could actually do something to ameliorate illness was created. And with that the need for randomized controlled trials, rational drug design, and the pharmaceutical industry. Indeed, Rosen states that "the machine of pharmaceutical innovation...wouldn’t exist, would never even have been built, but for the antibiotic revolution”
Rosen is clearly thankful and appreciative (as am I) for the innovators in pharmaceutical firms that made miracle cures like antibiotics possible. As Rosen aptly writes, "Tens, perhaps hundreds, of millions of victims of a thousand diseases from leukemia to river blindness are alive and thriving entirely because of a drug breakthrough. For them, and especially for the literally uncountable number of people whose bacterial infections, from strep throat to typhus to anthrax, were cured by a ten-day regimen of antibiotics, the bargain probably seems an extraordinarily one-sided one.”
Miracle Cure takes you from contemplating Galen's ideas about the four humors all the way to thinking about aplastic anemia caused by chloramphenicol -- a difficult task the book accomplishes excellently. I highly recommend it to those interested in the history of medicine, the history of the pharmaceutical industry, and the world of infectious diseases.